Neuroprotection of cannabidiol in epileptic rats: Gut microbiome and metabolome sequencing.

Epilepsy is a disease that affects at least 70 million people worldwide. Inflammation is considered the main cause of epilepsy, and it affects the neuronal excitability, regulating the threshold of epileptic seizures.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a main active ingredient in cannabis, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and could play a neuroprotective role by modulating the biological targets of the brain in neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical studies have reported that CBD has a good therapeutic effect in relieving pain and treating epilepsy. CBD can regulate neuroinflammation in the brain and alleviate the development of epilepsy. However, how CBD regulates neuroinflammation in the brain and its internal regulatory pathways remain unclear.
Gut microbiota can regulate gut permeability, alter local or peripheral immune responses, and produce essential metabolites and neurotransmitters. There is evidence that the composition of gut microbiota changes during epilepsy, and antiepileptic drugs can affect gut microbiota. Recent studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD may be involved in resisting gut inflammation, leakage of the gut vascular barrier caused by dysregulation of the gut microbiome, and subsequent neuroinflammation. However, the effects of CBD on gut microbiota during epilepsy treatment have been rarely reported.
The gut microbiota, the community of bacteria that live in our gut, play an important role in maintaining gut health and immune function. Recent studies have found that changes in the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of nervous system diseases, including epilepsy. CBD, a component of cannabis, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and can regulate neuroinflammation in the brain, potentially alleviating the development of epilepsy. CBD may also regulate the gut microbiota in epileptic rats, which could contribute to its therapeutic effect.
The gut microbiota produces substances that affect the excitation-inhibitory balance of the nervous system, including metabolites that act as neuromodulators. CBD may be involved in regulating the metabolic function of the gut microbiota of epileptic rats. Furthermore, the composition of the gut microbiome and the levels of inflammatory factors were altered in mice after drug intervention.
The study suggests that neuroinflammation is a key factor in epilepsy, and CBD could regulate it to alleviate epilepsy symptoms. CBD may also influence the gut microbiota of epileptic rats, leading to changes in metabolic pathways. It is unclear whether CBD's effect on gut microbiota contributes to its therapeutic effect in epilepsy, but the researchers plan to investigate this further. Overall, the study highlights the potential of CBD as a treatment for epilepsy and the importance of the gut microbiota in neurological disorders.

There are some limitations to the study, and more research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of CBD and gut microbiota in epilepsy. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that CBD could be a promising treatment for epilepsy and that the gut microbiota may play a crucial role in the therapeutic effect of CBD.
Though horses do not suffer from epilepsy, they do have changes in their gut health and microbiomes. It will be interesting to see research with CBD for horses and their gut microbiome.

Xiaoxiang Gong, Lingjuan Liu, Xingfang Li,  et al.  Frontiers in Nutrition. November 2022 DOI 10.3389/fnut.2022.1028459 

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